Why do prosthetic valves cause endocarditis?

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What is the most common cause of prosthetic valve endocarditis?

Prosthetic valve endocarditis

Early PVE may be caused by a variety of pathogens, including S aureus and S epidermidis. These nosocomially acquired organisms are often methicillin-resistant (eg, MRSA). Late disease is most commonly caused by streptococci. Overall, CoNS are the most frequent cause of PVE (30%).

What bacteria causes endocarditis prosthetic?

Early PVE may be caused by a variety of pathogens, including S aureus and S epidermidis. These nosocomially acquired organisms are often methicillin-resistant (eg, MRSA). Late disease is most commonly caused by streptococci. Overall, CoNS are the most frequent cause of PVE (30%).

What is early prosthetic valve endocarditis?

Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) refers to infection of one or more prosthetic heart valves [1-4]. The timing of the infection after surgical valve replacement reflects different pathogenic mechanisms that, in turn, influence the clinical presentation.

What causes infective endocarditis?

Infective endocarditis, also called bacterial endocarditis, is an infection caused by bacteria that enter the bloodstream and settle in the heart lining, a heart valve or a blood vessel. IE is uncommon, but people with some heart conditions have a greater risk of developing it.

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What is the most common complication of infective endocarditis?

Congestive heart failure (CHF) is the most important complication of IE, which has the greatest impact on prognosis. Periannular abscesses are a relatively common complication of IE (42% to 85% of cases during surgery or at autopsy respectively), associated with a higher morbidity and mortality.

Why is it hard to treat endocarditis?

If the endocarditis is caused by a fungus, because fungal infections are harder to treat than bacterial infections. If the infection is not clearing with antibiotics, or if the bacteria causing the infection have become resistant to antibiotics. If the infection has damaged the heart valves.

Why are prosthetic valves prone to infection?

Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE), although uncommon, is caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci in 15% to 40% of cases. The infection is usually health care–related (resulting from inoculation at the time of surgery) and manifests within 12 months of valve placement.

What is a native valve endocarditis?

Native valve endocarditis was defined as endocarditis involving native heart valves and not prosthetic heart valves or implanted endovascular devices. Patients with a pacemaker and/or implantable defibrillator could be included if they had evidence of valvular infection and no evidence of lead infection.

What is NVE endocarditis?

Acute NVE frequently involves normal valves and usually has an aggressive course. It is a rapidly progressive illness in healthy or debilitated persons alike. Virulent organisms, such as S aureus and group B streptococci, are typically the causative agents of this type of endocarditis.

What is the pathophysiology of endocarditis?

The pathophysiology of infective endocarditis comprises at least three critical elements: preparation of the cardiac valve for bacterial adherence, adhesion of circulating bacteria to the prepared valvular surface, and survival of the adherent bacteria on the surface, with propagation of the infected vegetation.

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What is the survival rate of endocarditis?

Conclusions: Long term survival following infective endocarditis is 50% after 10 years and is predicted by early surgical treatment, age < 55 years, lack of congestive heart failure, and the initial presence of more symptoms of endocarditis.

Can you fully recover from endocarditis?

Most people who are treated with the proper antibiotics recover. But if the infection isn’t treated, or if it persists despite treatment (for example, if the bacteria are resistant to antibiotics), it’s usually fatal.

What antibiotic is used for endocarditis?

A combination of penicillin or ampicillin with gentamicin is appropriate for endocarditis caused by enterococci that are not highly resistant to penicillin. Vancomycin should be substituted for penicillin when high-level resistance is present.