What prevents excessive spinal extension?

What prevents hyperextension of the spine?

The system of ligaments in the vertebral column, combined with the tendons and muscles, provides a natural brace to help protect the spine from injury. Ligaments aid in joint stability during rest and movement and help prevent injury from hyperextension and hyperflexion (excessive movements).

Which ligament prevents hyperextension of the spinal cord?

The anterior longitudinal ligament attaches to both the vertebra and the intervertebral discs. This ligament helps to prevent hyperextensions of the spine.

What limits extension of the vertebral column?

The anterior longitudinal ligament is thick and strong. It’s attached to the upper and lower edges of each vertebral body. It limits extension of the spine. In extension, the tightness of the anterior longitudinal ligament helps to prevent backward and forward movement of the vertebral bodies relative to each other.

What muscle helps with extending the spine?

Three types of back muscles that help spinal function are the: Extensor muscles. Attached to the back of the spine, these muscles allow us to stand and lift objects. They include the large muscles in the lower back (erector spinae), which help hold up the spine, and gluteal muscles.

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Why is hyperextension bad?

During hyperextension, the knee joint bends the wrong way, which often results in swelling, pain and tissue damage. In severe cases, ligaments such as the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), or popliteal ligament (the ligament along the back of the knee) may be sprained or ruptured.

Which spinal nerves affect which parts of the body?

The nerves of the cervical spine go to the upper chest and arms. The nerves in your thoracic spine go to your chest and abdomen. The nerves of the lumbar spine then reach to your legs, bowel, and bladder. These nerves coordinate and control all the body’s organs and parts, and let you control your muscles.

What are the major ligaments found in the spine?

The three major ligaments of the spine are the ligamentum flavum, anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL), and posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL) (Fig. 7).

Do muscles connect to spine?

Nerves extend through small holes in the vertebrae to different parts of the body. Tendons attach the muscles to the vertebrae. These muscles support the spine and allow for movement.

How many ligamentous bands are found in the spine?

There are five main ligamentous structures seen throughout the spinal column: Anterior Longitudinal Ligament (ALL) Posterior Longitudinal Ligament (PLL) Ligamentum Flavum.

What limits spinal movement?

Facet Joints These joints are formed at the back (posterior) of each vertebral body. Facet joints help the spine to bend, twist, and extend in different directions. The facet joints restrict excessive movement such as hyperextension and hyperflexion (i.e. whiplash). Each vertebra has two facet joints.

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At what vertebral level does the spinal cord end?

The spinal cord tapers and ends at the level between the first and second lumbar vertebrae in an average adult. The most distal bulbous part of the spinal cord is called the conus medullaris, and its tapering end continues as the filum terminale.

What muscles can cause lumbar extension?

Lumbar extensors are mainly composed of the erector spinae and multifidus muscle groups, and work cooperatively with gluteal and hamstring muscles during trunk extension (Graves et al., 1994).

What muscles attach c2?


  • attached to the anterior surface of the vertebral body. longus colli.
  • attached to transverse processes. levator scapulae. scalenus medius. splenius cervicis.
  • attached to spinous processes. semispinalis cervicis. rectus capitis posterior major. …
  • attached to posterior surface of lamina. multifidus and longissimus.